Dr. Anthony Lewis Brooks (aka Tony) and Professor Dr. Eva Brooks
from Aalborg University
answer a question posed by
Steelcase's Mark Greiner

Mark Greiner’s question:

We believe there is a strong relationship between learning, memory and physical space and the more we talk to neuroscientists, they agree,.. 'spatial context' is a key component of the brain's card-catalog system for recording memory.

“With sensations, we now shape the real and virtual spaces we inhabit and share.”

Is sensations a prescription for shaping space?

If so, is there scientific evidence for this?

Dr. Anthony Lewis Brooks (aka Tony) and Professor Dr. Eva Brooks from Aalborg University answer:

  RESOURCE LIST

Slater, M. and S. Wilbur, A framework for immersive virtual environments (FIVE): Speculations on the role of presence in virtual environments.

Presence-Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 1997. 6(6): p. 603-616.

Ijsselsteijn, W., et al., Effects of stereoscopic presentation, image motion, and screen size on subjective and objective corroborative measures of presence. Presence- Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 2001. 10(3): p. 298-311.

Slater, M., M. Usoh, and A. Steed, Taking steps: the influence of a walking technique on presence in virtual reality. ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact., 1995. 2(3): p. 201- 219.

Yvonne A. W. de Kort, Wijnand A. IJsselsteijn, Jolien Kooijman, Yvon Schuurmans. (2003) Virtual Laboratories: Comparability of Real and Virtual Environments for Environmental Psychology. Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments 12:4, 360-373. Online publication date: 1-Aug-2003.

Slater, M., et al., The influence of body movement on subjective presence in virtual environments. Human Factors, 1998. 40(3): p. 469-477.

Slater, M. and A. Steed, A virtual presence counter. Presence-Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 2000. 9(5): p. 413-434.

Welsh, R.B., et al., The Effects of Pictorial Realism, Delay of Visual Feedback, and Observer Interactivity on the Subjective Sense of Presence. Presence-Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 1996. 5(3): p. 263-273.

Hendrix, C. and W. Barfield, Presence within Virtual Environments as a Function of Visual Display Parameters. Presence-Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 1996. 5(3): p. 274-289.

Slater, M., M. Usoh, and Y. Chrysanthou, The influence of dynamic shadows on presence in immersive virtual environments, in Selected papers of the Eurographics workshops on Virtual environments '95. 1995, Springer-Verlag: Barcelona, Spain. p. 8- 21.

Dinh, H.Q., et al., Evaluating the Importance of Multi-sensory Input on Memory and the Sense of Presence in Virtual Environments, in Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Reality. 1999, IEEE Computer Society. p. 222.

Barbara Deml. (2007) Human Factors Issues on the Design of Telepresence Systems. Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments 16:5, 471-487

Karsten Bormann. (2005) Presence and the Utility of Audio Spatialization. Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments 14:3, 278-297

J. A. Waterworth, E. L. Waterworth. (2003) Being and Time: Judged Presence and Duration as a Function of Media Form. Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments 12:5, 495-511

Wooyoung Shim, Gerard Jounghyun Kim. (2003) Designing for Presence and Performance: The Case of the Virtual Fish Tank. Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments 12:4, 374-386

Christoph Klimmt, Peter Vorderer. (2003) Media Psychology "is not yet there": Introducing Theories on Media Entertainment to the Presence Debate. Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments 12:4, 346-359

Thomas Schubert, Frank Friedmann, Holger Regenbrecht. (2001) The Experience of Presence: Factor Analytic Insights. Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments 10:3, 266-281

Zimmons, P. and A. Panter. The Influence of Rendering Quality on Presence And Task Performance in a Virtual Environment. in Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Reality 2003. 2003: IEEE Computer Society.

Mania, K. and A. Robinson. The Effect of Quality of Rendering on User Lighting Impressions and Presence in Virtual Environments. in ACM Siggraph International conference on Virtual Reality Continuum and its Applications in Industry. 2004. Singapore: ACM Press.

Khanna, P., et al. Presence in Response to Dynamic Visual Realism: A Preliminary Report of an Experiment Study. in VRST. 2006. Cyprus: ACM.

Sanchez-Vives, M.V. and M. Slater, From Presence to Consciousness through Virtual Reality. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2005. 6(4): p. 332-339.

Buxton, B. and G.W. Fitzmaurice, HMDs, caves \& chameleon: a human-centric analysis of interaction in virtual space. SIGGRAPH Comput. Graph., 1998. 32(4): p. 69-74.

Slater, M., et al., Small-group behavior in a virtual and real environment: A comparative study. Presence-Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 2000. 9(1): p. 37-51.

Pausch, R., D. Proffitt, and G. Williams, Quantifying immersion in virtual reality, in Proceedings of the 24th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques. 1997, ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.

Friedman, D., et al., Sharing and Analyzing Data from Presence Experiments. Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments, 2006. 15(5): p. 599-610.

Slater, M., et al., Analysis of Physiological Responses to a Social Situation in an Immersive Virtual Environment. Presence: Teleoper. Virtual Environ., 2006. 15(5): p. 553-569.

Garau, M., D. Friedman, H. Ritter Widenfeld, A. Antley., A. Brogni, and M. Slater Temporal and Spatial Variations in Presence: Qualitative Analysis of Interviews from an Experiment on Breaks in Presence. Presence: Teleoper. Virtual Environ., 2007. in press.

Slater, M. and A. Steed, A virtual presence counter. Presence-Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 2000. 9(5): p. 413-434.

Cruz-Neira, C., D.J. Sandin, and T.A. DeFanti, Surround-screen projection-based virtual reality: the design and implementation of the CAVE, in Proceedings of the 20th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques. 1993, ACM Press. p. 135-142.

Slater, M., How colorful was your day? Why questionnaires cannot assess presence in virtual environments. Presence-Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 2004. 13(4): p. 484-493.

Mel Slater et al., 2007. Presence: Research Encompassing Sensory Enhancement, Neuroscience, Cerebral-Computer Interfaces and Applications (PRESENCCIA), IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications.

Brey, P., 1999. The ethics of representation and action in virtual reality. Ethics and Information Technology 1. 5-14.

Friedman, B., Nissenbaum. Bias in computer systems. In Friedman, B., ed.: Human Values and the Design of Computer Technology. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. 1997

Cranford, M., 1996. The social trajectory of virtual reality: substantive ethics in a world without constraints. Technology in Society, 18, 79-92.

Peter Horsfield, 2003. Continuities and discontinuities in ethical reflections on digital virtual reality. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 18 (3,4) 155-172

Lévy, P. 1997. Becoming Virtual: Reality in the Digital Age. Plenum Trade, New York. Tomasello, M., 1999. The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Winnicott, D.W., 1971. Playing and Reality. Tavistock Publications, London. Huizinga, J., 1998. Homo Ludens.

Baldwin, J.M., 1896. Consciousness and evolution. Psychological Review3, 300-309 Bruner, J., 1986. Actual Minds, Possible Words. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Taylor, M., 1997. The role of creative control and culture in children's fantasy/reality judgements. Child Development 68, 1015-1017.

Subbotsky, E.V., 1994. Early rationality and magical thinking in preschoolers: space and time. British Journal of Development Psychology 12, 97-108

Gross, J.J., 1999. The emerging field of emotion regulation: an integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2, 271-299.

Marcel, A.J., Bisiach, E. (eds.), 1992. Consciousness in contemporary science. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Karmiloff Smith, A., 1994. Beyond Modularity. A Development Perspective on Cognitive Science. Cambridge, MIT

Johnson, M; 1987 The Body in the Mind: The Bodily Basis of Meaning, Imagination, and Reason Chicago. University of Chicago Press

Reber, A; 1997. Implicit learning and tacit knowledge. Oxford University Press

Tulving, P., 1985. Memory and consciousness. Canadian Psychology 26, 1-12

Goodman, N., 1978. Ways of World Making. Hachett Publishing Company. Minsky, M., Telepresence. Omni, 1980: p. 45-52.

Held, R.M. and N.I. Durlach, Telepresence. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 1992. 1(1): p. 109-112.

Sheridan, T.B., Musings on Telepresence and Virtual Presence. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 1992. 1(1): p. 120-126.

O'Regan, J.K. and A. Noe, A sensorimotor account of vision and visual consciousness. Behav Brain Sci, 2001. 24(5): p. 939-973; discussion 973-1031.

O'Regan, J. and A. noë, What it is like to see: A sensorimotor theory of perceptual experience. Synthese, 2001. 129(1): p. 79-103.

Noë, A., Action In Perception. 2004: Bradford Book.

Slater, M., M. Usoh, and A. Steed, Depth of Presence in Immersive Virtual Environments. Presence-Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 1994. 3(2): p. 130-144.

Lenggenhager, B., T. Tadi, T. Metzinger, and O. Blanke, Video ergo sum: Manipulating bodily self-consciousness. Science, 2007. 317(5841): p. 1096-1099.

Brotons-Mas, J.R., S. O'Mara, and M.V. Sanchez-Vives, Neural processing of spatial information: What we know about place cells and what they can tell us about presence. Presence-Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 2006. 15(5): p. 485-499.

Barfield, W., and S. Weghorst. 1993. The Sense of Presence Within Virtual Environments: A Conceptual Framework, p. 699-704, In G. Salvendy and M. Smith, eds. Human-Computer Interaction:Software and Hardware Interfaces, Vol. B. Elsevier Publisher.

Gibson, E.J., and R.D. Walk. 1960. The Visual Cliff. Scientific American 202:64-72.

Harvey, M., and M.V. Sanchez-Vives. 2005. The Binding Problem in Presence Research. Presence-Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 15:616-621.

Held, R.M., and N.I. Durlach. 1992. Telepresence. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 1:109-112.

Milner, A., and M. Goodale. 1995. The visual brain in action. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Minsky, M. 1980. Telepresence. Omni:45-52.

Noë, A. 2004. Action In Perception Bradford Book. (ed.) 2007. PRESENCE 2007: The 10th Annual International Workshop on Presence, Barcelona, Spain.

Sheridan, T.B. 1996. Further musings on the psychophysics of presence. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 5:241-246.

Schubert T, Friedmann F, Regenbrecht H. The experience of presence: Factor analytic insights. Presence-Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 2001; 10(3):266-281.

Vastfjall D. The subjective sense of presence, emotion recognition, and experienced emotions in auditory virtual environments. Cyberpsychology & Behavior 2003; 6(2):181-188.

Vastfjall D. The subjective sense of presence, emotion recognition, and experienced emotions in auditory virtual environments. Cyberpsychology & Behavior 2003; 6: 181-188.

Mraz R, Hong J, Quintin G, Staines WR, McIlroy WE, Zakzanis KK et al. A platform for combining virtual reality experiments with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Cyberpsychology & Behavior 2003; 6: 359-368.

Zimmermann P, Fimm B. A test battery for attentional performance. Applied Neuropsychology of Attention Theory, Diagnosis and Rehabilitation 2002: 110- 151.

Hecht, D., Reiner, M., Halevy, G., (2005). Multi-Modal Stimulation, Response Time, and Presence. Presence 2005, London.

Diederich, A. & Colonius, H. (2004): Bimodal and trimodal multisensory enhancement: Effects of stimulus onset and intensity on reaction time. Perception & Psychophysics, 66 (8), 1388-1404.

Calvert, G.A., Thesen, T (2004): Multisensory integration: methodological approaches and emerging principles in the human brain. Journal of Physiology - Paris 98 (2004) 191-205.

Fort, A., Delpuech, C., Pernier, J., Giard, MH. (2004): Early auditory-visual interactions in human cortex during nonredundant target identification. Cognitive Brain Research 14 (2002) 20-30.

Georgieff, N. and M. Jeannerod, Beyond Consciousness of External Reality: A "Who" System for Consciousness of Action and Self-Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition, 1998. 7(3): p. 465-477.

K. Wassermann et al., "Roboser - an autonomous interactive music composition system," Proc. Int. Computer Music Conference (ICMC), I. Zannos, ed., 2000, p. 531--534.

H. Dinh et al., "Evaluating the importance of multi-sensory input on memory and the sense of presence in virtual environments," Virtual Reality, 1999. Proceedings., IEEE, 1999, pp. 222-228.

J. Lessiter et al., "A Cross-Media Presence Questionnaire: The ITC-Sense of Presence Inventory," Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments, vol. 10, 2001, pp. 282-297.

Nisbett, R.E. and T.D. Wilson, Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes. Psychological Review, 1977. 84(3): p. 231-59.

Väljamäe, A., & Tajadura-Jiménez, A. (2007) Perceptual Optimization of Audio-Visual Media: Moved by Sound in Anderson, B. and Anderson, J. (eds.) Narration and Spectatorship in Moving Images. Cambridge Scholars Press.

Juslin, P. N. et al Music and emotion : theory and research. Oxford University Press, Oxford ; New York, 2001

Meyer, L. B (1956). Emotion and Meaning in Music. The University of Chicago Press, 1956.

H.F. Pollard and E.V. Jansson. A tristimulus method for the specification of musical timbre. In Acustica, volume 51, 1982.

J. A. Russell. A circumplex model of affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39:345-356, 1980.

 

Resource List Compiled by:

Professor Dr. Eva Brooks
Associate Professor
Head of Section, Media Technology
Aalborg University
Campus Esbjerg
Niels Bohrs Vej 8
DK - 6700 Esbjerg, Denmark

Tel.: +45 9940 9940
Direct: +45 9940 7730
Cell: +45 2718 6266

ep@aaue.dk <mailto:ep@aaue.dk>
Research Portal
Medialogy Esbjerg

Member of the PEGI board (Pan-European Game Information)

Interactive Software Federation of Europe (ISFE)

www.pegi.info <http://www.pegi.info/>
www.pegionline.eu <http://www.pegionline.eu/>
www.isfe.eu <http://www.isfe.eu/> Member of International Toy Research Association (ITRA)
www.toyresearch.org/ <http://www.toyresearch.org/> Member of the Toys for Tomorrow Forum
www.nid.edu <http://www.nid.edu> Co-founder of Ludic Engagment Designs for All (LEDA) Symposium
www.led4all.org <http://www.led4all.org>

 

Associate Professor Dr. Anthony Lewis Brooks (aka Tony)
Esbjerg Technical Institute
Aalborg University

Profile link

Medialogy Management team (www.medialogy.eu)

Assistant Ed. Int.Jnl. Digital Creativity

Associate Editor Int. Jnl Virtual Reality

Ed. Board Int. Jnl Art & Technology

Ed. Board Int. Jnl Disability & Human Development

Ed. Board Int. Jnl Cybertherapy

Journal of CyberTherapy & Rehabilitation (www.vrphobia.eu)

International Association of CyberTherapy & Rehabilitation (www.imi-europe.eu)

Founder of ArtAbilitation international conference (www.ArtAbilitation.net)

Co-Founder of LEDA international symposium (www.LED4All.org)

Founder of DigArt Denmark (www.DigArt.dk)

Honorary member Neuroesthetics(http://www.neuroestetica.it/members.htm)

Board member International Society Virtual Rehabilitation http://www.isvr.org/

Postal address:

Niels Bohrs vej 8
6700 Esbjerg
Denmark

tel (+45) 99407716 (cell 26272279)
secretary [Britta Jensen] 99407716)